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bd40bc7c7a This answer is worse than Student #1's and Student #2's answers. .. Exception Details: . ^ Weiss, D.J.; Davison, M.L. IQ tests are norm-referenced tests, because their goal is to see which test taker is more intelligent than the other test takers. This answer is worse than Student #2's answer, but better than Student #3's answer. For example, if one wants to give feedback to members of a class of students, one should relate the score of each individual to the means and standard deviations derived from the class itself. Standards-based education reform focuses on criterion-referenced testing. Most everyday tests and quizzes taken in school, as well as most state achievement tests and high school graduation examinations, are criterion-referenced. For example, the criterion may be "Students should be able to correctly add two single-digit numbers," and the cutscore may be that students should correctly answer a minimum of 80% of the questions to pass. The median IQ is set to 100, and all test takers are ranked up or down in comparison to that level.
Many high-profile criterion-referenced tests are also high-stakes tests, where the results of the test have important implications for the individual examinee. Examples of this include high school graduation examinations and licensure testing where the test must be passed to work in a profession, such as to become a physician or attorney. Test Topics. Another disadvantage of norm-referenced tests is that they cannot measure progress of the population as a whole, only where individuals fall within the whole. However, being a high-stakes test is not specifically a feature of a criterion-referenced test. Review of Educational Research. Both terms criterion-referenced and norm-referenced were originally coined by Robert Glaser. Unlike a criterion-reference test, a norm-referenced test indicates whether the test-taker did better or worse than other people who took the test. doi:10.1146/annurev.ps.32.020181.003213. Other types.